The british responded to the chinese population in much different ways than they did the malays. The making of british malaya, 18741919 springerlink. All these trading posts officially known as straits settlements in 1826 and became the crown colony of british empire in 1867. The making of britains new malayan policy, 18571874. In the west coast states, increased investment by merchants in the straits settlements singapore, penang, and melaka coincided with ongoing. As a prelude to the analysis of educational developments in the malay states, a brief summary of those two influences is necessary. The bangkok treaty 1909 signed by the thai and the british, which gave the british to control the northern malay states kedah. The federated malay states fms was a federation of four protected states in the malay peninsulaselangor, perak, negeri sembilan and pahangestablished by the british government in 1895, which lasted until 1946, when they, together with two of the former straits settlements malacca and penang and the unfederated malay states, formed the. Even khoo and mahani have diverted their attention to the. Two statements of government policy, one within a year of the other, marked the rapid change in british policy in malaya from noninterference to intervention. British intervention in the affairs of malay states was formalised in 1895, when malay rulers accepted british residents in administration, and the federated malay states was formed. Meanwhile the acceptance of permanent british advisers by the four northern states of perlis, kedah, kelantan and terengganu and the southern state of johor in 1914, collectively known as the unfederated malay states ums and excluded from the fms, had effectively allowed the extension of british rule throughout the malay peninsular.
The federation of malaya, comprising 11 peninsular states, was established in 1948. Following the end of the japanese occupation of malaya 19421945, the british government mooted the idea of a malayan union comprising all the malay states and penang and malacca. It was understood the sultan would consult this resident, and accept his advice, on all matters except those concerning malay religion and customs. In 1871 swettenham was first sent to singapore as a cadet in the civil service of the straits settlements singapore, malacca, and penang island. The origins of british colonialization of malaya with special. Regardless of the political form, however, british rule brought profound changes, transforming the various. British colonial rule in malaya was guided by their experience with colonial systems, which in turn provided the means to dominate malaya both politically and economically while their preparation for dealing with native malay populations resembled the imperial framework they employed in india. He learned the malay language and played a major role as a british malay intermediary in the events surrounding british intervention in the peninsular malay states in the 1870s. The federated malay states in the 19th century relied on port. After the devastating world war ii, the education system in malaysia faced the challenges of being revitalised and built with a national image on the. It was during this era of british colonial rule that the first income tax statutes were introduced. Pdf examine the reason why sultan of johore finally. The beginnings of british intervention in malaya 22 b.
British intervention in perak 1874 the pangkor engagement policy of nonintervention. For more than a decade after british intervention in the malay states. By the pangkor engagement of 1874, the perakprovince. British intervention in the affairs of malay states was formalised in 1895, when malay rulers of pahang, selangor, perak and negeri sembilan accepted british residents and formed the federated malay states. Concerning the malay states which are not included in the federation. Malay nationalists also campaigned for independence. Borneo and british intervention in malaya journal of. It was the british who created plural society with different economic, social and political functions. Assessing the british counterinsurgency effort in malaya. Instead, british malaya comprised the straits settlements, the federated malay states, and the unfederated malay states.
When johore agreed to the appointment of a british resident in 1914, britain now had control of the whole malay peninsula. British role in ums was to be much more advisory than the fms. Having successfully expanded into the unfederated malay states the british effectively controlled the whole of peninsula. Was the british government bringing order to troubled native states. In 1874, the conservatives came into power in britain replacing the liberals. An account of the origin and progress of british influence in malaya swettenham, sir frank on. Sharifah suhanah syed ahmad dr sharifah suhanah syed ahmad retired as an associate professor of the faculty of law, university of malaya, kuala lumpur, malaysia in october 20. In conclusion, the british counterinsurgency effort in malaya was a success.
Position of english law in the malay states and its effect. With this residential system, the british control the states through indirect rule. Sir frank swettenham british colonial official britannica. This system was adapted from a model already in use in british india, and was eventually imposed on the rest of the malay states. Feb 11, 2015 officers from the british effort in afghanistan have observed, as with vietnam, that the afghan insurgency will not be overcome by a doctrine that resembles a stretched version of the malaya campaign mackinlay, 2007. The intervention of the british in perak marked the beginning of a new era for the state. A second introductory chapter deals with the growth in the peripheral straits settlements, and particularly in singapore, of a distinctive and heterogeneous urban malayomuslim community, which. As early as 1864 the singapore newspapers had suggested that england should offer to purchase the country, but at that time singapore can hardly have had firsthand knowledge of social conditions under malay rule.
Pdf succession disputes in the malay states of the. The changes policy of the british strongly influence by the political development in europe. Governor andrew clarke may have concluded the treaty on his own initiative, but it did not cause great consternation in the colonial office, where the possible appointment of a british agent in the western malay states had been under discussion for some time. Before the british intervention into malay states, malays were governed by malay adat law and for the nonmalays, they were governed by personal laws or if they were british subjects, english law. The new government reversed the policy of non intervention to one of imperialism to boost britains prestige. Johore differed from fms accepted british protection in 1914.
The british presence in the region reflected several patterns. In terms of the economic structure, the malay states became one of the major world suppliers of raw materials and at. Reception of english law in malay states lqx7002 studocu. Malaysian legal system legal history the malay states part 1 1. The british government was reluctant to get involved in malay affairs. As he later wrote in a literary sketch appropriately entitled. The states will receive british protection against external attack and in return, the rulers agreed to accept british residents as advisers whose advice was acted upon all matters except those concerning malay custom and religion. Apr 09, 2015 the british wisely intervened in the administration of the malay states and introduced different forms of administration such as resident system, the federated malay states and the non federated malay states.
British intervention in malaya transformed the demography and political geography of. Johor was effectively brought under british control when the position of the british general adviser in the johor sultanate was elevated to the level similar to that of a resident in the federated malay states fms. In 1909, kedah, kelantan, terengganu and perlis were handed over by siam to the british. In the 1870s, the british government authorized intervention in several malay states on the west coast of the peninsula and. It argues that british legacy had shaped political development in malaya especially after second world war. How the development of the malay states has affected the neighbouring british colony, and the relations of both with the colonial office the singapore harbour and docks the civil service the malay administrator the future of british malaya. Regardless of the political form, however, british rule brought profound changes, transforming the various states socially and economically. These states along with johor, later became known as unfederated malay states. Successful collaboration was vital for british interests to prosper. The campaign achieved only a partial success in 1867 for its second aim did not materialize immediately. Full text views reflects the number of pdf downloads, pdfs. The introduction of a different system of authority led to significant changes in their political structure. Experience in managing the malay nobility and district heads within patrimonial systems of state government created a form of dyarchy between sultans councils of state and a residents departmental offices. He regards swettenhams view as quite untenable, since malay states disorders provided only the occasion for british intervention, and were not its cause.
As british trade and investment grew, british interference and intervention. Swettenham and british residential rule in west malaya. The founding of penang in 1786 by sir francis light marked the british penetration of tanah melayu, and in 17956, malacca was conquered. For centuries prior to the founding of malacca, the archipelago had been a key location in a vast trade network stretching from africa to china. Four types of schools with mediums of instruction in english, malay, chinese and tamil were available during british colonisation. The earliest scholarly study in the malay states was by william roff, who focuses on safety and sanitation in hajj ships. The british legacy on the development of politics in malaya. After 1867 demands for british intervention grew rapidly. Expansion of colonial territories by other western powers. At that time, the malay states were divided into several provinces or districts with a chieftain authorised to collect tax over the people.
Which of the following is not the political factors that drives british intervention in the malay states. The british viewed security threats from sources such as rivalries between states in malaya, the japanese occupation and later on the communist insurgencies as reasons to justify the policy of intervention and colonial rule in malaya. By the time that most of the malay states had be en intervened by the british through the establishment of residential system in 1874, johor was a ble to prevent british intervention in the. The british government employed a policy of non intervention in the malay states before 1873 year, as it was considered undesirable as it could bring about collision, declare the resources of britain and destroy the commerce. Regardless of the political form, however, british rule brought profound changes, transforming the various states socially and. Lecture 3 british direct intervention malaysia politics. The british legacy and the development of politics in malaya. He concludes that it was due to these issues, in addition to political ones, that the british.
Making boot through peaceful commerce was their major benefit. The industrial revolution that was going on in europe. Local sultans played a much greater role in governing their own states. British intervention in the malay states angelfire. Succession disputes in the malay states of the peninsula at the end of the 19th century have led to british intervention, discuss article. British intervention was vital as another western power might secure a firm footing in the malay states and threaten their interest. Doc reception of english law in malay states priya.
The study opens with a brief examination in chapter i of the social organisation of the traditional malay polity as it was at the time of british intervention in the internal affairs of the. These laws continued to apply, subject to modifications made by specific legislation, until the formal reception of the english law. Working paper series a tale of two asian cities dubai and. The dutch agreed to cede all bases in malay peninsula included singapore to britain british agreed to cede bencoolen to dutch. The federated malay states perakrekt first, negeri sembilan, selangor and pahang accepted the british intervention with the implementation of the resident system. In spite of the general policy of noninterference in the malay states during this period. Federated malay states fms events led to the british intervention in the federated malay states fms state event result perak in 1873, a dispute arose on the succession of throne after jww birch was appointed as the death of raja ali sultan of perak between raja the resident abdullah and raja ismail raja abdullah became sultan with. By the time that most of the malay states had be en intervened by the british through the establishment of residential system in 1874, johor was a ble to prevent british intervention. Cs monopoly of trade with china in 1834 brought other european traders into the areaprofit reducedprofitable singapore reasons. Coming of british in malaysia since the 17th century. Again, british intervention was justified in the name of stopping chinese and malay piracy. British intervention in malaya, 18671877 singapore, university of malaya, 1960, 186.
While india and the gulf states were administered by calcutta, in 1867 the administration of the straits settlements was transferred directly to london in a bid to expand british capitalist claims on the emerging malay tin mining trade bose 2006. Sultan kena ask the resident permission to go out at night except custom and religion. He learned the malay language and played a major role as british malay intermediary in the events surrounding british intervention in the peninsular malay states in the 1870s. Enactment 1937,give the permission to accept of the english law provided that the inhabiatants permit and. Third, and seemingly with less consistency, swettenham evinced an affection for the tradi tional malay way of life which bordered at times on the romantic and the antiquarian. Maharajas in johor, selangor, perak, and other malay states hoped, erroneously, that british intervention might save them from a worse fate. Introduction to the malaysian legal system and sources of law by dr. In 1786, the british acquired penang island from the sultan of kedah. Malay states fms which comprised perak, selangor, negri sembilan and. British intervention in the malay states from 1874 established a form of overrule through residents. The serious british intervention in malaya began after 1870s. When the british flag is seen over perak, every chinese will go down on his knees and bless god. British rule was reintroduced after the war, but met active resistance from the mcp. Pdf succession disputes in the malay states of the peninsula at.
Well enough one of the chinese leaders in larut exclaimed. However, this was vehemently opposed by the malays, as a result of which it was disbanded in 1948 in exchange for a federal system. While the straits settlements were colonies under direct british rule, the rest of the malay states were ruled by sultans who were embroiled in various succession disputes in their respective states. Colonial policy and the impact to the politicoeconomy. The controversy that has surrounded the question of british intervention in malaya has turned upon a number of issues. Sir frank swettenham, born march 28, 1850, belper, derbyshire, eng. The diffusion and transmission of cricket among european, indigenous and migrant communities in the british straits settlements and malay states during the late eighteenth and nineteenth century, 17861899. The british had 3 ports in malay states 5 non intervention policy british policy to make profit through peaceful trading. Topic 4 development of malaysian legal history malaysia. Gradually, the british colonial and foreign offices made their policies conform to the needs of great britains rapidly industrializing economy in which the exploitation of raw materials assumed signal importance great britain extended its influence over the malay states by a combination of persuasion, pressure and an occasional show of force.
Malaysian legal system legal history the malay states. Before 1873, the british government adopted a policy of nonintervention in the malay states as it was considered undesirable as it could lead to conflict, disrupt trade and drain britains resources. British colonialism, the chinese secret societies and the malay rulers1 this article is a reinterpretation of the history of power struggles, civil wars and anarchy which were asserted to have happened in perak, one of the malay states in the malay peninsula during the period of 187175. Fms whose political power was lost to the british in 1896.
The commercial importance of tin mining in the malay states to merchants in the straits settlements led to infighting between the aristocracy on the peninsula. C was to make as great a profit as possible through peaceful trading the abolition of the e. Malay headmen and district officers acted as brokers between the two lines of. Their conceptions of the chinese population, formed by interactions with the chinese in china, led the british to believe that a new colonial framework for controlling this group was necessary. Malaysia, british, 18741957following the british founding of singapore in 1819, chinese and british economic involvement on the malay peninsula expanded because of the lure of profits from tin mines and plantation agriculture. The treaty led to the establishment of the resident system in perak and acted as a precedent for further british intervention in other malay states.
Before british intervention in the malay states and before the resident system was introduced, there existed a tax administration in pahang, perak, selangor and negeri sembilan managed by the malay chieftains. Settlements, was non intervention and the british government was. A meeting of civilizational traditions 7 trade has long played an important role in shaping the regions history. British malaya sir frank swettenham 1948 gohd books. Hajj and the malayan experience 81 problems and death. Frank swettenham, then aged 25, was appointed deputy commissioner 18751876, following the murder of james birch, the first british resident of perak, that year. Under british hegemony, malaya was one of the most profitable territories of the empire, being the worlds largest producer of tin and later rubber. Instead, britis h malaya comprised the straits settlements, th e federated malay st ates, and the unfederated malay state s. Tanah melayu british loosely describes a set of states on the malay peninsula and the island of singapore that were brought under british hegemony or control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. The impact of british colonial rule on the malaysian income. Johor is brought under british control singapore history.1173 985 29 568 870 1452 460 860 141 289 793 1328 1184 1200 1306 1533 1016 1354 95 831 402 732 396 360 862 1372 325 1016 287 266 82 1354 834 1202 628 1085 418 1062 522 315